The Positive Impact Of Erasmus Programme On EU

The Positive Impact Of Erasmus Programme On EU

Introduction:

In 1987, the Erasmus programme was founded by the European Union and named after the Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. It aimed to support education, training, youth, and sports in Europe with an annual budget[1] of 14.7 billion euro. Since then, over three million students, four thousand universities and thirty-three countries have taken part in this exchange programme. This achieved effective results in developing the European economy and education. Higher education, with its links to research and innovation, can play a crucial role in self-development and economic growth by preparing highly qualified people and the articulate citizens that Europe needs.

This article will define the positive impacts and the advantages of having the Erasmus programme on the EU.

Firstly, the Erasmus Programme had benefited and advanced European countries by filling the universities and institutions with international exchange students. This program is also an opportunity for people to strengthen international friendships, which can lead to further relationships such as long-term friendship or even marriage. A study carried out by the European Commission proposed that more than a fourth of the individuals who join in its long-running Erasmus plan meet their life-partner while abroad, and that more than one million people may have been born subsequently. The Erasmus Impact Study interviewed more than 88,000 students, educators and organizations, and found that international exchange students were much more prone to have trans-national connections. 33% of ex-Erasmus understudies had an acquaintance of a different nationality, in contrast to the individuals who stayed at home amid their studies who had only 13%.

            In addition, by traveling and studying abroad, European students gain skills to deal with different cultures, thus enabling them to improve their social skills. Therefore, these skills allow individuals to progress in their social life as a European Citizen[2] and prepare them to enter into labour market.[3] Orginaizations and employers nowadays prefer someone who has skills boosted by the programme such as tolerance, confidence, problem-solving skills, curiosity, knowing one’s strengths/weaknesses, and decisiveness when making a recruitment decision. Research also shows that Erasmus students exhibit more of these personality traits, even before their exchange starts. By the time they come back, the difference in these values increases by 42% on average, compared with other students. On top of that, work placements have a high direct effect on employment, where 36%[4] of the students who have done their work placement abroad were higher in the same company. This is a result of the Erasmus programme that enabled them to understand and communicate with individuals and organizations outside of their own culture.

Another important advantage, due to the fact that the number of early school leaving students is growing, and the high affect that caused by this phenomenon. For the European union to reduce the number of people with minimum qualifications, the European commission has proposed an action to prevent the economic damage that can be caused by early school leavings©[5]. Erasmus programme and skill exchange in Europe can successfully minimize the of unskilled people. Not only that but it can also reduce the number of the following generations.

Lastly, by giving an opportunity for self-development in different cultures in Europe, the Erasmus programme successfully increases cultures awareness. In other words, “curriculum gives international and intercultural knowledge and abilities, aimed at preparing students for performing (professionally, socially, and emotionally) in an international and multicultural context.”[6]  By the time the students finish the Erasmus programme, they are more open-minded, tolerant, and able to live and communicate with people from diverse backgrounds. This can lead to the reduction of cultural indifference and promote peoples’ positive attitudes in a long term way. Furthermore, it strengthens the solid relations of the students to Europe.

In conclusion, the Erasmus programme is playing a crucial rule in the increase of integrity through cultural harmonization that can influence European society and promote European citizenship. Cultural appreciation will directly affect the smooth flow of trade in the market. The liberal democratic market and culturally allied societies will increase wealth and social justice. The Erasmus programme is one of the most successful programmes that the European union encouraged for the advancement of the European countries and citizens.

 

Bibliography:

[1] Erasmus funding budget. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/about_en

[2] European citizen is Any person who holds the nationality of an EU country is automatically also an EU citizen See: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/index_en.htm

[3] Pedagogy for employability, Ann Pegg, Jeff Waldock, Sonia Hendy-Isaac, Ruth Lawton page 4, 2006. Available at: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/sites/default/files/resources/pedagogy_for_employability_update_2012.pdf

[4] The impact of Erasmus, page 120. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/education/library/study/2014/erasmus-impact_en.pdf

[5] Preventing early school leaving

[6] (Nilsson, 2000, p 22).

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Absolutism and why was it chosen by Europe

Absolutism and why was it chosen by Europe

Image result for absolutism crown

Introduction:

Before the 17th century, Europe went through different governmental systems for controlling their countries.  Each of these systems were based on exchanging benefits and spreading power among the government. One such system was feudalism, in which the nobility held land from the king in exchange for military service, and vessels were tenants of the nobles. Meanwhile, the peasants were obliged to live on their lord’s land and give him respect, labor, and a share of the productions in exchange for military protection. Whereas, absolutism was a form of government (more like a modern dictatorship) in which the monarch of the territory had unlimited and complete power over the public as well as the government (centralization of power.) This government was based on the theory of “The Divine Right of King” which states that the king is authorized by god to rule the country.

Research question and objectives:

The aim of this abstract is to define and discuss a number of reasons why absolute monarchs were desired by European society in different countries in Europe.  There are a several reasons why absolute monarchy was firstly accepted by the European society.

Firstly, the lack of stability that prevailed throughout Europe during the medieval time contributed highly to the rise of the absolute monarchies. The public went through tough conditions that made them tired of uncertain circumstances. This caused them unhappiness and raised the interest of being ruled by an absolute ruler who could guarantee them peaceful and stable life. This fact was fully exploited by the rulers of France, Russia and England to establish their absolute rule. For example, France had been torn apart from religious wars, the citizens had no respect for law and order, the feudal nobility had seized control and the finances of the central government were in chaos.

In addition, the enormous expansion in trade, commerce and industries significantly contributed the growth of absolute monarchs in Europe. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, most of the countries in Eastern Europe were economically less developed than Western Europe. Whereas, aristocrats (merchants and traders) were the dominant power and they had the intention to have peaceful and secured trading atmosphere that could positively support the country itself. As a result, the creation of powerful absolute monarchy became much more favourable, especially in countries such as Prussia, Austria and Russia.

Lastly, renaissance and reformation played such a crucial role in supporting and developing absolutism as a form of government in Europe. The period of 15th to 17th centuries was a time of intellectual discoveries based on rediscovering the Greek philosophy, literature religion and government.  This also caused reformation that “encouraged greater questioning of the Bible and a search to recover ‘uncorrupted’ texts from the original languages.”  As a result, people discovered that one emperor governed ancient Greece and some of the ancient empires, which raised the desire of supporting one ruler.

On the other hand, when Queen Elizabeth the first was the absolute monarch in the British kingdom, the House of Lords’ power was increasing which resulted in conflicts between them (parliament) and the Queen over ruling the territory jointly.

To conclude, despite the fact that the European countries were ruled by different types of government, the Europeans were satisfied with absolute monarchs systems.  This was a consequence of the tough conditions the society went through, such as social instability in many of the European countries, for example Russia and England. However, the absolute monarch in England was not able to exploit the full governing priority due to the conflicts they had with the parliament.

References:-

  • Wenxian, Y. (2008). What Is” Feudalism.Wuhan University Journal (Humanity Sciences)5, 002.
  • Beik, W. (1985).Absolutism and society in seventeenth-century France: State power and provincial aristocracy in Languedoc. Cambridge University Press.
  • Beam, S. (2007).Laughing Matters: Farce and the Making of Absolutism in France. Cornell University Press.
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LCMMeibVRDQ
  • Loretta (2016). Early Modern States